What is cryptography ?
Cryptography is used to secure and protect data during communication through the use of codes. It prevents unauthorized people or groups of users from accessing any confidential data. Encryption and decryption are the two main functionalities of cryptography.
What is Encryption?
Encryption is a process that transforms the original information into a meaningless form. This new form of the message is completely different from the original message. That's why a hacker is not able to read the information as senders use an encryption algorithm to protect it from unauthorized people or groups to access it. Encryption is usually done using key algorithms.
What is Decryption?
Decryption is a process of converting meaningless (encrypted) data in a form that is readable and understood by a human or a computer. This method is performed by un-encrypting the text manually or by using keys or passwords used to encrypt the original data.
Features of Cryptography are as follows:
Confidentiality: The information cannot be understood by anyone for which it was unintended.
Integrity: The information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the information being detected.
Non-repudiation: The creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the transmission of the information.
Authentication: The sender and receiver can confirm the origin/destination of the information and each other's identity.
Types of Cryptography
Symmetric Key Cryptography: This is also termed as Secret Key Cryptography. Here the sender and the receiver use the same single common key to encrypt or decrypt the messages. Symmetric Key Systems are faster and simpler but the problem with this system is tah sender and receiver have to somehow exchange the Secret Key in a secure manner. Data Encryption System(DES) is the most popular Symmetric Key Cryptography system.
Hash Functions: There is no usage of any key in this algorithm. This algorithm takes the input of arbitrary length and gives the output in the same fixed length. The hash function is also considered as a mathematical equation that takes seed (numeric input) and produces the output as a hash message.
Asymmetric Key Cryptography: This is also termed as Public Key Cryptography. In this system, every user uses two keys (private key and public key) for encrypt and decrypt information. Private key is kept as a secret with every user and a public key is shared across the network so that a message can be transmitted through public keys.
Encryption of data is much needed in our modern time and the latest schemes may necessarily be the best fit. There are the latest algorithms and techniques being developed as hackers and eavesdroppers have made it tough to secure data to the best possible way. Cryptography is going to enhance more methods in the coming years to make personal data more secure and it’s standards more reliable.